By default, a cell reference is a relative reference, which means that the reference is relative to the location of the cell. If, for example, you refer to cell A2 from cell C2, you are actually referring to a cell that is two columns to the left (C minus A)in the same row (2). When you copy a formula that contains a relative cell reference, that reference in the formula will change.

As an example, if you copy the formula=B4*C4from cell D4 to D5, the formula in D5 adjusts to the right by one column and becomes=B5*C5. If you want to maintain the original cell reference in this example when you copy it, you make the cell reference absolute by preceding the columns (B and C) and row (2) with a dollar sign ($). Then, when you copy the formula=$B$4*$C$4from D4 to D5, the formula stays exactly the same.

Less often, you may want to mixed absolute and relative cell references by preceding either the column or the row value with a dollar signwhich fixes either the column or the row (for example, $B4 or C$4).

, select the reference that you want to change.

Press F4 to switch between the reference types.

The table below summarizes how a reference type updates if a formula containing the reference is copied two cells down and two cells to the right.